Arthur Eric Rowton Gill – (1882–1940) was an English sculptor, typeface designer, stonecutter and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement. He is a controversial figure, with his well-known religious views and subject matter generally viewed as being at odds with his sexual behaviour, including his erotic art as well as his sexual abuse of children and of an animal.
Gill was named Royal Designer for Industry, the highest British award for designers, by the Royal Society of Arts. He also became a founder-member of the newly established Faculty of Royal Designers for Industry.Gill was born in 1882 in Steyning, Sussex, and grew up in the Brighton suburb of Preston Park. He was the elder brother of MacDonald "Max" Gill (1884–1947), the well known graphic artist. In 1897 the family moved to Chichester. He studied at Chichester Technical and Art School, and in 1900 moved to London to train as an architect with the practice of W.D. Caroe, specialists in ecclesiastical architecture. Frustrated with his training, he took evening classes in stonemasonry at Westminster Technical Institute and in calligraphy at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, where Edward Johnston, creator of the London Underground typeface, became a strong influence. In 1903 he gave up his architectural training to become a calligrapher, letter-cutter and monumental mason.
Univers is the name of a sans-serif typeface designed by Adrian Frutiger in 1954. Classified as a neo-grotesque typeface, one based on the model of the 1898 typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk, it was notable on its launch for its availability in a comprehensive but consistent range of weights and styles.
Frutiger would go on to become one of the most notable typeface designers of the 20th century, and Univers proved enormously influential: it was one of the first typefaces to fulfill the idea that a typeface should form a family of consistent, similar designs. Past sans-serif designs such as Gill Sans had much greater differences between weights, while Akzidenz-Grotesk and the Franklin Gothic family often were advertised under different names for each style, to emphasise that they were separate and different. By creating a matched range of styles and weights, Univers allowed documents to be created in one consistent typeface for all text, increasing the range of documents that could be artistically set in sans-serif type. Originally conceived and released by Deberny & Peignot in 1957, the type library was acquired in 1972 by Haas Type Foundry. It was transferred into the D. Stempel AG and Linotype collection in 1985 and 1989 respectively upon the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei's acquisition and closure; it is now owned by Monotype following its purchase of Linotype in 2007.